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DERO is a general purpose, private and scalable decentralized application platform that allows developers to deploy powerful and unstoppable applications, while users retain total control over their assets with complete privacy. It is our goal to create a sound monetary framework that will globally safeguard the privacy of all users and empower free markets to thrive, while maintaining complete auditability.
In an age driven by centralized data empires, we as a society have sacrificed our digital privacy and trusted large faceless organizations, who exploited, sold, censored, even manipulated our digital and financial data, so that we could participate in the electronic world.
Most common cryptographic obfuscation techniques in use on blockchains today have required trusted setups or centralized consensus mechanisms (PoS or Proof-Of-Stake) to lower fees and scale user-bases, usually both. Pre-existing trustless obfuscation techniques using decentralized Proof-Of-Work (PoW) consensus have historically led to further scaling or decentralization-hindering roadblocks, both of which have been major persistent factors in prohibiting the development of a massively decentralized and trustless layer 1 private application platform.
This state of affairs has led the DERO Project through a multi-year pursuit to identify and isolate the architectural shortcomings present in preexisting, conventional decentralized application platforms, as well as in private blockchain protocols.
Throughout the development period, DERO’s anonymous developers have researched, engineered, and released several new technologies that were found to be missing entirely from the industry. These technologies have now been have been combined, iterated, extensively tested and introduced to the world.
DERO migrated from the initial CryptoNote Protocol release (Atlantis) to it’s own DERO Homomorphic Encryption Blockchain Protocol or DHEBP (Stargate) on [date], at block height [block].
Secure and fast crypto is the basic necessity of this project and adequate amount of time has been devoted to develop/study/implement/audit it. Most of the crypto such as ring signatures have been studied by various researchers and are in production by number of projects. As far as the Bulletproofs are considered, since DERO is the first one to implement/deploy, they have been given a more detailed look. First, a bare bones bulletproofs was implemented, then implementations in development were studied (Benedict Bunz, XMR, Dalek Bulletproofs) and thus improving our own implementation.
Some new improvements were discovered and implemented (There are number of other improvements which are not explained here). Major improvements are in the Double-Base Double-Scalar Multiplication while validating bulletproofs. A typical bulletproof takes ~15-17 ms to verify. Optimised bulletproofs takes ~1 to ~2 ms(simple bulletproof, no aggregate/batching). Since, in the case of bulletproofs the bases are fixed, we can use precompute table to convert 64*2 Base Scalar multiplication into doublings and additions (NOTE: We do not use Bos-Coster/Pippienger methods). This time can be again easily decreased to .5 ms with some more optimizations. With batching and aggregation, 5000 range-proofs (~2500 TX) can be easily verified on even a laptop. There are other optimizations such as base-scalar multiplication could be done in less than a microsecond.
Dero ultrafast bulletproofs optimization techniques in the form used did not exist anywhere in publicly available cryptography literature at the time of implementation. Please contact for any source/reference to include here if it exists. Ultrafast optimizations verifies Dero bulletproofs 10 times faster than other/original bulletproof implementations.
DERO rocket bulletproof implementations are hardened, which protects DERO from certain class of attacks.
DERO rocket bulletproof transactions structures are not compatible with other implementations.
Graviton Database is a simple, fast, versioned, authenticated, embeddable key-value store database in pure GOLANG. Graviton Database in short is like “ZFS for key-value stores” in which every write is tracked, versioned and authenticated with cryptographic proofs. Additionally it is possible to take snapshots of the database. Also it is possible to use simple copy, rsync commands for database backup even during live updates without any possibilities of database corruption.
Graviton Database in short is “ZFS for key-value stores”.
[From Wikipedia:] Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption allowing one to perform calculations on encrypted data without decrypting it first. The result of the computation is in an encrypted form, when decrypted the output is the same as if the operations had been performed on the unencrypted data.
Homomorphic encryption can be used for privacy-preserving outsourced storage and computation. This allows data to be encrypted and out-sourced to commercial cloud environments for processing, all while encrypted. In highly regulated industries, such as health care, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable new services by removing privacy barriers inhibiting data sharing. For example, predictive analytics in health care can be hard to apply via a third party service provider due to medical data privacy concerns, but if the predictive analytics service provider can operate on encrypted data instead, these privacy concerns are diminished.
Homomorphic account based model.
Instant account balances [Need to get 66 bytes of data only from the blockchain].
DAG/MINIDAG with 1 miniblock every second
Mining Decentralization.No more mining pools, daily 100000 reward blocks, no need for pools and thus no attacks
Erasure coded blocks, lower bandwidth requirements, very low propagation time.
No more chain scanning or wallet scanning to detect funds, no key images etc.
Truly light weight and efficient wallets.
Fixed per account cost of 66 bytes in blockchain[Immense scalability].
Perfectly anonymous transactions with many-out-of-many proofs [bulletproofs and sigma protocol]
Fixed transaction size say ~2.5KB (ring size 8) or ~3.4 KB (ring size 16) etc based on chosen anonymity group size[ logarithmic growth]
Anonymity group can be chosen in powers of 2.
Allows homomorphic assets (programmable SCs with fixed overhead per asset), with open Smart Contract but encrypted data [Internal testing/implementation not on this current testnet branch].
Allows open assets (programmable SCs with fixed overhead per asset)
Allows chain pruning on daemons to control growth of data on daemons.
Transaction generation takes less than 25 ms.
Transaction verification takes even less than 25ms time.
No trusted setup, no hidden parameters.
Pruning chain/history for immense scalibility[while still secured using merkle proofs].
Example disk requirements of 1 billion accounts (assumming it does not want to keep history of transactions, but keeps proofs to prove that the node is in sync with all other nodes)
Requirement of 1 account = 66 bytes Assumming storage overhead per account of 128 bytes ( constant ) Total requirements = (66 + 128)GB ~ 200GB Assuming we are off by factor of 4 = 800GB
Note that, Even after 1 trillion transactions, 1 billion accounts will consume 800GB only, If history is not maintained, and everything still will be in proved state using merkle roots, and so, even a Raspberry Pi can host the entire chain.
Senders can prove to receiver what amount they have send (without revealing themselves).
Worlds first Erasure Coded Propagation protocol, which allows 100x block size without increasing propagation delays.
Entire chain is rsyncable while in operation.
At this point in time, DERO (Stargate) has first mover advantage in the following features:
Traditional Blockchains process blocks as single unit of computation(if a double-spend tx occurs within the block, entire block is rejected). However DERO network accepts such blocks since DERO blockchain considers transaction as a single unit of computation.DERO blocks may contain duplicate or double-spend transactions which are filtered by client protocol and ignored by the network. DERO DAG processes transactions atomically one transaction at a time.
DERO DAG implementation builds outs a main chain from the DAG network of blocks which refers to main blocks (100% reward) and side blocks (8% rewards). Side blocks contribute to chain PoW security and thus traditional 51% attacks are not possible on DERO network. If DERO network finds another block at the same height, instead of choosing one, DERO include both blocks. Thus, rendering the 51% attack futile.